What Is The Society Of Colombia?

A 2016 peace agreement among the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the authorities ended a 5-decade-lengthy armed war and precipitated an initial decline in violence. But conflict-associated violence has due to the fact taken on new office work, and abuses with the aid of armed groups, together with killings, genocide and mass pressured displacement, have improved in plenty of far flung regions of Colombia in 2021.

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Civilians in various elements of the u . S . Confronted intense abuse at the hands of National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrillas, FARC dissidents and paramilitary successor agencies. Human rights defenders, journalists, indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders and other community activists face big lack of life threats and violence. The authorities has taken inadequate and insufficient steps to shield them.

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Between late April and mid-June, plenty took to the streets in the course of Colombia to protest a number problems, which includes proposed tax reform, monetary inequality, police violence, and much less safety for inclined communities in faraway areas. Police officials repeatedly and arbitrarily dispersed peaceful demonstrations and used excessive, often brutal, force, which encompass ammunition and gender-based totally violence.

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The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to control it had a devastating impact on poverty and inequality in Colombia. 

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According to the government’s Multidimensional Poverty Index, almost 1/2 a million people fell into poverty in 2020, and the variety of families with out-of-school kids prolonged thru about 14 percentage.

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Impunity for beyond abuses, barriers to land healing for displaced humans, limitations on reproductive rights, and excessive poverty and the segregation of indigenous and Afro-Colombian groups are vast human rights concerns.

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Guerrilla And Farc Disillusioned

A minority of FARC guerrilla opponents, referred to as FARC dissidents, rejected the phrases of the peace deal, refused disarmament and persisted to abuse.

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Other FARC dissidents to start with unarmed however joined or formed new organizations, partially in response to assaults thru armed groups and others in the direction of former fighters. 

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By the surrender of September 2021, greater than 290 former FARC combatants have been killed in those assaults.

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FARC dissidents and exclusive armed businesses, along with the ELN and paramilitary successors, have done some of “genocides” defined due to the fact the killing of 3 or extra civilians in Colombia.

In the southern municipality of Argelia within the nation of Cauca, ELN and FARC dissident agencies dedicated a series of abuses, at the side of killings, massacres and kidnappings, forcing lots to flee. 

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Similarly, on the Pacific coast of the southern state of Nario, greater than 23,000 people had been displaced among January and mid-August among severa FARC dissident groups.

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In Chocó State, at the west coast, preventing continued a number of the ELN and Colombia’s Gattanist Self-Defense Forces (AGC), a fixed that emerged from proper-wing paramilitaries. 

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Antipersonnel landmines, threats via armed corporations, and threats of gunfire avoided more than 33,000 humans from leaving their companies in Chocó amongst January and September, a situation called “imprisonment”.

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Paramilitary And Successor

Between 2003 and 2006, proper-wing paramilitary organizations with close to ties to protection forces and politicians underwent a deeply wrong government demilitarization process, throughout which many individuals remained lively and reorganized into new groups. These successor businesses, specifically the AGC, preserve to violate the prison guidelines of struggle and commit crucial human rights abuses which includes murders, disappearances and rapes.

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In late July 2021, fighting between the AGC and a FARC dissident organization, in addition to threats from armed corporations, pressured greater than four,000 human beings to escape the municipality of Ituango inside the north of Antioquia state.

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On 23 October, Colombian safety forces arrested the AGC’s pinnacle commander, Darío Antonio Osuga David, aka “Otoniel”, who had dozens of arrest warrants pending, which consist of murder and kidnapping of kids. The US has requested his extradition on drug trafficking costs.

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Implementation of the 2005 Justice and Peace Act, which offers a whole lot less punishment to participants of paramilitary forces who confess to their crimes, has been gradual. 

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More than 30,000 paramilitary forces have officially demobilized, with four,000 looking for to trade a confession for a lesser sentence. As of October 2020, around 650 were sentenced.

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Violations By Public Security Forces

Police officials dedicated excessive human rights violations in response to largely peaceful protests throughout Colombia in overdue April and mid-June 2021. Human Rights Watch identified evidence linking police to the killings of 25 protesters and spectators, in most cases with ammunition.

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Hundreds of protesters were injured, a few in all likelihood with everlasting lack of imaginative and prescient in one eye, seemingly from tear gasoline cartridges, subconscious.Renades, or kinetic impact projectiles fired from rebel guns.

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In June, the Ombudsperson’s Office cautioned receiving lawsuits of 5 instances of rape and over 100 times of gender-based totally definitely violence through the use of police officers, including slapping and verbal abuse. Victims covered lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.

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to “guard” them or others.

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Violence Against Community Activists

More than 500 human rights defenders had been killed in Colombia due to the fact 2016, making it one of the nations with the highest numbers of human rights defenders killed worldwide. As of September, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) had documented killings of fifty eight human rights defenders in 2021 and became verifying another 34 cases.

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On April 20, armed men killed Sandra Liliana Pea, an authority of the Indigenous Nasa network inside the Laguna Siberia reserve in Cauca. Pea had acquired numerous threats by using armed companies earlier than her killing.

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Most such killings have took place in areas wherein illegal financial sports, consisting of drug production and trafficking, are commonplace. 

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These include Putumayo, Cauca, Valle del Cauca, and Nariño states in the south; the Catatumbo place, at the border with Venezuela; and the Bajo Cauca region.

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Threats To Judicial Independence

In August 2020, the Supreme Court ordered the pretrial arrest of then-Senator and previous President Alvaro Uribe, as a part of an investigation into whether or now not he bribed former paramilitary opponents to alternate their stories approximately his alleged function in the advent of paramilitary groups.

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In reaction, President Iván Duque, a protégé of Uribe, and distinct leaders from their Democratic Center celebration made statements seemingly imagined to smear or intimidate the courtroom docket and undermine the legitimacy of the choice. Some of them proposed overhauling the complete court docket gadget.

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Uribe resigned from the Senate, and the Supreme Court, which handles probes related to lawmakers, relinquished its jurisdiction over the case, sending the case to the Attorney General’s Office.

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A judicial selection remained pending at time of writing.

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